UNMANNED AIR VEHICLES:
COORDINATION, SENSING, AND CONTROL

Tutorial workshop for the

IEEE International Conference on Control Applications &
IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Aided
Control Systems Design


September 25-27, 2000, Anchorage Hilton, Anchorage, Alaska, USA

Unmanned air vehicles are being used more and more in a number of civilian and military applications, e.g., remote monitoring of traffic, search and rescue operations, surveillance, etc. This has spanned considerable interest in the control community, mainly because the design of UAVs brings to light research questions falling in some of the most exciting "new directions" for automatic control. Examples of these are multi-agent coordination, probabilistic reasoning in control, vision in the feedback loop, sensor fusion, hybrid systems, biologically inspired systems, etc. Adding to this, many UAVs make use of new sensing and control technologies, such as Infrared Sensors (IR), Global Positioning System (GPS), Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), etc.

In a one-day workshop, we cover a wide range of questions arising in the design of UAVs. This will be done systematically, starting with high-level mission planning and going all the way to single vehicle, integrated hardware/software design. The first set of talks address the coordination of fleets of UAVs. The specific questions covered include multi-agent pursuit-evasion games, conflict resolution, and hierarchical architectures for control and communication. A second set of talks concentrates navigation and sensing. In particular, on three-dimensional obstacle avoidance, the landing of UAVs on fixed or moving platforms, and the fusion of sensor data that includes GPS, INS, and vision measurements. The last set of talks focus on the design, modeling, and control of single UAVs. Special emphasis is put on the nonlinear nature of the systems. Biologically inspired design and hardware/software integration are also considered.

Organizers:

Joo Hespanha
University of Southern California
Electrical Engineering-Systems
3740 McClintock Avenue, room 318
Los Angeles, CA 90089-2563
Ph: (213) 740-9137, Fax: (213) 821-1109
hespanha@usc.edu

Claire Tomlin
Stanford University
028A Durand Building, MC 4035
Stanford CA, 94305-4035
Ph: (650) 723-5164, Fax: (650) 723-3738
tomlin@leland.stanford.edu

Shankar Sastry
University of California at Berkeley
269M Cory Hall #1772
Berkeley, CA 94720-1772
Ph: (510) 642-1857, Fax: (510) 642-1341
sastry@eecs.berkeley.edu

Speakers:

Joo Hespanha (hespanha@usc.edu) University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

Isaac Kaminer (kaminer@aa.nps.navy.mil) Naval Post-Graduate School, Monterrey, CA

John Koo (koo@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu) University of California at Berkeley, CA

Maria Prandini (prandini@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu) University of Brescia, Italy and University of California at Berkeley, CA

Luca Schenato (lusche@eecs.berkeley.edu) University of California at Berkeley, CA

Omid Shakernia (omids@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu) University of California at Berkeley, CA

David Shim (hcshim@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu) University of California at Berkeley, CA

Claire Tomlin (tomlin@leland.stanford.edu) Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA

Rene Vidal (rvidal@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu) University of California at Berkeley, CA

Program

Introduction

8:00 8:15 Unmanned Air Vehicles: Coordination, Sensing, and Control by Joo Hespanha (hespanha@usc.edu)

Multi-Agent Coordination

8:15 9:00 A probabilistic framework for pursuit-evasion games with UAVs by Maria Prandini (prandini@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu)

9:00 9:45 Approximate solutions for pursuit-evasion games with UAVs by Joo Hespanha (hespanha@usc.edu)

This and the previous talk are based on material that can be found in the following papers:

Joo Hespanha, Hyoun Jin Kim, and Shankar Sastry.
Multiple-Agent Probabilistic Pursuit-Evasion Games.
In Proc. of the 38th Conf. on Decision and Contr., pp. 24322437, Dec. 1999.

Joo Hespanha and Maria Prandini and Shankar Sastry.
Probabilistic Pursuit-Evasion Games: A One-Step Nash Approach.
In Proc. of the 39th Conf. on Decision and Contr., 3:2272-2277, Dec. 2000.

A more detailed description of the problem can be found in the following technical report:

Joo Hespanha, Hyoun Jin Kim, and Shankar Sastry.
Multiple-Agent Probabilistic Pursuit-Evasion Games.
Technical Report, Dept. Electrical Eng. & Comp. Science, University of California at Berkeley, Mar. 1999.

9:45 10:00 Coffee break

10:00 10:45 Simulation and experimentation of coordinated strategies for pursuit-evasion games by Rene Vidal (rvidal@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu)

10:45 11:30 Coordination and Conflict Resolution for Multiple UAVs by Claire Tomlin (tomlin@leland.stanford.edu)

This talk is based on material that can be found in the following papers:

Claire Tomlin, George J. Pappas, and Shankar Sastry.
Conflict Resolution for Air Traffic Management: A Study in Multi-Agent Hybrid Systems
In IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 43, Number 4, April 1998.

Claire Tomlin, John Lygeros, and Shankar Sastry.
Synthesizing Controllers for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems
In Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1386, Proc. of Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control, Berkeley, April 1998.

Navigation and Sensing

11:30 12:15 Trajectory generation for UAV designs by John Koo (koo@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu) and Jie Liu

This talk is based on material that can be found in the following papers:

John Koo, B. Sinopoli, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Shankar Sastry
A Formal Approach to Reactive System Design: A UAV Flight Management System Design Example
In Proc. of IEEE International symposium on Computer-Aided Control System Design, Kohala Coast, Hawaii, Aug. 1999

12:15 1:15 Lunch

1:15 2:00 Integrated vision/inertial navigation systems design for UAVs by Isaac Kaminer (kaminer@aa.nps.navy.mil) and Oleg Yakimenko.

This talk is based on material that can be found in the following paper:

Isaac Kaminer, Antonio Pascoal, and Wei Kang
Integrated vision/inertial navigation system design using nonlinear filtering
In Proc. of the 1999 American Contr. Conf., pages 19101914, vol. 3, June 1999

Single UAV modeling and control

2:00 2:45 Complete guide for building UAVs by David Shim (hcshim@robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu)

More information about the Berkeley fleet can be found in the BEAR web page or in David Shims web page. For a description of some of the control algorithms being used at Berkeley, see the following paper and the references therein:

H. Shim, John Koo, Frank Hoffmann, Shankar Sastry
A Comprehensive Study on Control Design of Autonomous Helicopter
In Proc. of IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Florida, Dec. 1998.

2:45 3:00 Coffee break

3:00 3:45 Landing an unmanned air vehicle: vision based motion estimation and nonlinear control by Omid Shakernia

This talk is based on material that can be found in the following paper:

Omid Shakernia and Yi Ma and John Koo and Joo Hespanha and Shankar Sastry.
Vision Guided Landing of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
In Proc. of the 38th Conf. on Decision and Contr., pages 4143--4148, Dec. 1999.

3:45 4:30 UAVs flight control by Claire Tomlin (tomlin@leland.stanford.edu)

4:30 5:15 Micro-mechanical flying insects flight control: a hierarchical and biologically inspired design by Luca Schenato (lusche@eecs.berkeley.edu)