ECE594_

Noise In Electronics.

Mark Rodwell

UPDATE:
Please see more updated noise analysis notes from the following courses:

This is a Ph.D.-level seminar course in noise in electrical engineering, with an emphasis on covering material significant to Ph.D. students whose research is experimental and is in semiconductor devices, integrated circuits, or optical communications. The intent is to teach it once every ~4 years, so as to be available once for each set of Ph.D. students. I am considering offering it again in Fall term 2005. I would be grateful of feedback from Mishra, York, Bowers, Blumenthal, Coldren, and Long group Ph.D. students as to whether this would be of interest.

Notes
Set 3: Statistical Thermodynamics

Noise
Notes Set 6: Thermal Noise

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Notes Set 7: First Look at Noise in Circuits

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Notes Set 8: Shot Noise and Diffusion Noise

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Notes Set 9: Bipolar Transistor Noise

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notes set 10: Noise in Field-Effect Transistors

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Notes Set 11: Noise of Miscellaneous
devices

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Notes Set 12: Physics and Noise of
Resonant Tunnel diodes.

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Notes Set 13: Circuit Noise analysis: overview and benchmarks

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Notes Set 14: Circuit Noise analysis methods.

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Notes Set 15: FET minimum noise figure.

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Notes Set 16: Bipolar Transistor Noise Analysis

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Notes Set 17: Approximate BJT Minimum Noise figure derivation

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Notes Set 18: Mixers and Analog Communications Systems

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Notes set 19: Baseband, AM, and FM analog receivers.

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notes set 20: Noise in signal sources.

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notes set 21: Sensitive Experiments:
Noise in the Physics Lab.

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notes set 22: Digital communications
systems

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Notes Set 23: Fiber Optic Communication Links

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Notes Set 24: A sketch of information theory

math, physics, devices, circuits, systems

Sets, probability, conditional probability, Bayes theorem,
independence.

Bernoulli trials, random variables, density and distribution functions .

Binomial distributions and Gaussian and Poisson as limiting cases thereof.

Transformations.

System configurations, multiplicity functions, entropy, temperature.

Boltzmann law, velocity distribution of a gas.

Expectations, mean, variance, distribution functions of
multiple RVs.

Conditional densities, sums of RVs and convolution, central limit theorem.

Covariance, correlation, Jointly Gaussian RVs and correlation matrix.

Linear operations on JGRV's and relationship to filtered random processes.

Linear Estimation .

Random processes, sample space, orders of stationarity, ergodicity.

time and ensemble averages.

correlation functions as complete description of stationary
ergodic JGRP.

spectral densities, cross spectral densities.

Thermal noise derivation from stat thermo.

Available noise power

circuit noise relationships.

Pre-introduction of transistor noise models.

Circuit noise analysis

Total input referred noise voltage.

Total input referred noise current.

Short-circuit input noise voltage, open-circuit input noise current.

Noise figure, minimum noise figure, optimum source impedance.

Friss Formula, available gain, noise measure, noise temperature.

Independent events and shot noise derivation

Ultraviolet crisis and shot noise

Counting arguments.

Schottky diode: thermionic emission,
shot noise vs. bias, 2kTR relationship.

Diffusion noise: variation of fluxes

diffusive transport and diffusive noise in PN junctions: physics and circuit models

shot noise of GR currents.

Transit times, diffusion capacitance

BJT operation: DC and high frequency inclusive of diffusion and space charge effects.

Small signal noiseless model. Addition of diffusion noise terms.

Full (correlated) base and collector noise

Simplified (normal , zero correlation) BJT noise model.

Velocity-field curves, ad-hoc electron temperature model

gradual channel model. integrals. Derivation of channel noise current.

Modification for velocity saturated case.

Gate current noise and correlation with channel noise.

Simplified, pragmatic noise model.

Schottky and PN diode noise models. Transmission lines. Antenna noise temperature.

Friss formula in temperature form.

Contents exactly as stated. Topic now only of specialized interest; will likely be skipped.

Total input referred noise voltage.

Total input referred noise current.

Short-circuit input noise voltage, open-circuit input noise current.

Noise figure, minimum noise figure, optimum source impedance.

Friss Formula, available gain, noise measure, noise temperature.

Signal/noise ratio expressed in various terminologies: by voltage, by current, by noise figure, by noise temperature; equivalence thereof.

Method of transposition of sources. Many examples worked.

En-In model of FET. Noise figure circles.

Strong discrepancy between impedance matching and noise matching.

Proof (and some corrections to)

Impact of impedance and power consumption limits on achievable noise with square-law MOSFET front-ends.

HBT / BJT noise figure at low frequencies

Resistive feedback amplifier noise figure.

Derivation of very long expression for noise figure vs. source impedance.

Derivation of very approximate expression for minimum noise figure.

Superhet receivers. Diodes as mixers. Diode Design.

Diode mixer noise models. Noise figure and effect of image response on noise.

Elimination of image noise by image termination.

Harmonic mixers and sampling circuits.

2-port mixer description.

Signal/noise ratio. Microphone preamp example. AM and DSB receiver example.

Nonlinear and twisted modulation: SNR enhancement. Threshold effect.

FM and PM as twisted modulation.

FM radio receiver sensitivity.

Hand waving treatment of 1/f noise.

Small angle PM. Spectral descriptions of AM and PM.

AM and PM/FM sidebands. Energy relationships and timing deviation.

Phase noise in oscillators. Van Der Pohl method.

Example: PLL for laser timing control.

How to measure *tiny* things.

Integration bandwidth. Minimum detectable signal.

Period of observation and integration bandwidth. Averaging as a form of filtering.

Limit of observation times on 1/f^N noise processes.

Limits *to* observation times by drift.

Examples: finding little green men from alpha centari (CETI), electro optic sampling, atomic force microscopy.

Linear algebra. Waveforms as vectors in N-space.

Delta functions and sinusoids as orthonormal basis sets --> the Fourier transform.

Modulation formats and channel codes.

Optimum receiver decision rules.

Correlation / matched filter receiver. Receiver sensitivity and bit error rate.

Example: sending data from Saturn to Earth.

Receiver in colored noise. Whitening filter. Intersymbol interference. Intractability.

Simplified practical non-optimum receivers. Eye diagrams. Personik noise integrals. Optical receiver sensitivity.

Design of low-noise optical receiver front-ends.

Statistical entropy. Typical sequences. Conditional distributions and conditional entropy.

Mutual information. Entropy of a signal sequence.

Channel capacity. Capacity of band limited additive Gaussian channel.